NDC’s & Africa

NDC's & Africa

All 54 African countries have committed to the Paris Climate Agreement, an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that aims to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C.

Although these countries have pledged their commitment to meeting their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), there is an evident lack of strategy development and implementation by a large majority of African nations towards meeting these goals.

African Climate Reality Project (ACRP), in collaboration with climate leaders around the continent, are investigating the progress that African countries have made towards meeting their NDCs and greater obligations to the Paris Climate Agreement.

In general, we have noticed a fundamental lack of research and data of current and past levels of GHG emissions. In fact, the countries that are falling behind have created mitigative policies and strategies based on outdated or inaccurate information.  For example, many have used data collected before 1990, and have not taken the growth in emissions, population, and industries in the last 20 years into consideration.  Furthermore, several countries around the continent essentially lack any information on strategies and policies adopted to mitigate GHG emissions, which prevents us from making an accurate judgement on whether these countries will meet their obligations.

Nevertheless, our investigation also provided avenues for hope and optimism in the continent being a frontrunner in the fight against climate change. We were particularly pleased to find a small group of countries that vitally understand and acknowledge the need to mitigate GHG emissions.

This map is designed to inform climate leaders, and the greater public, whether the individual African nations are going to meet their obligations to the Paris Climate Agreement. In each profile, we outline the various conditions that guided our conclusions, identify the four major sectors responsible for the nation’s emissions, and articulate suggestions and potential remedies that the nation should adopt in order to meet its designated obligations.

NDCs in Africa continued

ANGOLA

BOTSWANA

KENYA

Lesotho

ANGOLA

Ang1
PCA FULFILLMENT

Angola will not fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. NO adoption of policy and action at any level: Executive, Ministerial, or Parliamentary level.
  2. Significant LACK of data conducted to create accurate GHG inventory.
  3. Issue of “Fugitive Emissions”
  4. Lack of tangible strategizing and mitigation since 2005.
  5. Commitments to the Paris Agreement only symbolic Fundamental absence of ratification.

 

SOLUTIONS
  • Constituents must pressure governments into ratifying effective policy and strategy aimed at achieving net negative emissions.
  • Research and production of accurate GHG Inventories;
    • Training of academia and research institutions to improve recording and collection of GHG data.
    • Development of harmonised formats of data collection.
    • Capacity building and training among sector lead institutions.
  • Creation of awareness of the reality of climate change and greenhouse gases that will drive the urgency to form policies and strategy.
Ang4

BOTSWANA

Bot1-1007x1030
PCA FULFILLMENT

Unknown

REASONING
  1. Lack of data and public information prevents accurate conclusions
  2. More than 90% of all emissions come from energy and AFOLU Sectors. This will continue to grow
  3. AFOLU and waste sector emissions continue to rise exponentially
  4. Last recording of emissions data available is from 2011, more than 7 years ago
  5. Change in government regime (April 2018) and potential environmental policy changes
SOLUTIONS
  • Constituents must pressure governments into ratifying effective policy and strategy aimed at achieving net negative emissions
  • Research and production of accurate GHG Inventories;
    • Training of academia and research institutions to improve recording and collection of GHG data
    • Development of harmonised formats of data collection
    • Capacity building and training among sector lead institutions
  • Creation of awareness of the reality of climate change and greenhouse gases that will drive the urgency to form policies and strategy
Bot4

KENYA

KEN1-809x1030
PCA FULFILLMENT

Kenya should fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. Adoption of policy and action at Executive, Interministerial, and Ministerial levels
  2. Endorsements of external funding in environmental investments
  3. Recording of GHG inventory and review of emissions strategy updated yearly (last recorded 2016)
  4. Frequent changes in political regime can affect climate policies adopted
SOLUTIONS
  • Investment in and implementation of renewable energy;
    • Tackle expanding role of electricity and expand potential renewable energy
  • Investment in technologies that reduce emissions in the Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use (AFOLU) sector
    • Create long-term Carbon Budget that effectively factors in economic growth and development, while achieving net negative emissions
  • Ensure accountability and action of government to enforce policy
    • Proof of external funding allocated to appropriate channels / programs
KEN4

Lesotho

LES-NDC1
PCA FULFILLMENT

Lesotho should fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. Adoption of policy and action at Executive, Interministerial, an Ministerial levels
  2. Low existing GHG emissions due to dependence on hydropower
  3. Lack of existing investments to fund mitigation scenarios
  4. Low GDP per capita prevents GHG emissions from industry to grow, over-reliant on agriculture

 

FUTURE ACTION
  • Investment in mitigation strategies and projects from international community
  • Collect data and research to create GHG Inventories in order to better-track
    changes in emissions over time
  • Ensure that carbon-neutral economic development is prioritized in
    future growth of the economy
  • Ensure accountability and action of government to enforce stated policies.
  • Create long-term Carbon Budget that effectively factors in economic growth and development, while achieving net negative emissions.
LES-NDC4
PCA FULFILLMENT

Angola will not fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. NO adoption of policy and action at any level: Executive, Ministerial, or Parliamentary level
  2. Significant LACK of data conducted to create accurate GHG inventory
  3. Issue of “Fugitive Emissions”
  4. Lack of tangible strategizing and mitigation since 2005
  5. Commitments to the Paris Agreement only symbolic Fundamental absence of ratification
SOLUTIONS
  • Constituents must pressure governments into ratifying effective policy and strategy aimed at achieving net negative emissions.
  • Research and production of accurate GHG Inventories;
    • Training of academia and research institutions to improve recording and collection of GHG data.
    • Development of harmonised formats of data collection.
    • Capacity building and training among sector lead institutions.
  • Creation of awareness of the reality of climate change and greenhouse gases that will drive the urgency to form policies and strategy.
Ang4
PCA FULFILLMENT

Unknown

REASONING
  1. Lack of data and public information prevents accurate conclusions
  2. More than 90% of all emissions come from energy and AFOLU Sectors. This will continue to grow
  3. AFOLU and waste sector emissions continue to rise exponentially
  4. Last recording of emissions data available is from 2011, more than 7 years ago
  5. Change in government regime (April 2018) and potential environmental policy changes
SOLUTIONS
  • Constituents must pressure governments into ratifying effective policy and strategy aimed at achieving net negative emissions
  • Research and production of accurate GHG Inventories;
    • Training of academia and research institutions to improve recording and collection of GHG data
    • Development of harmonised formats of data collection
    • Capacity building and training among sector lead institutions
  • Creation of awareness of the reality of climate change and greenhouse gases that will drive the urgency to form policies and strategy
Bot4
PCA FULFILLMENT

Kenya should fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. Adoption of policy and action at Executive, Interministerial, and Ministerial levels
  2. Endorsements of external funding in environmental investments
  3. Recording of GHG inventory and review of emissions strategy updated yearly (last recorded 2016)
  4. Frequent changes in political regime can affect climate policies adopted
SOLUTIONS
  • Investment in and implementation of renewable energy;
    • Tackle expanding role of electricity and expand potential renewable energy
  • Investment in technologies that reduce emissions in the Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use (AFOLU) sector
    • Create long-term Carbon Budget that effectively factors in economic growth and development, while achieving net negative emissions
  • Ensure accountability and action of government to enforce policy
    • Proof of external funding allocated to appropriate channels / programs
KEN4
PCA FULFILLMENT

Lesotho should fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. Adoption of policy and action at Executive, Interministerial, an Ministerial levels
  2. Low existing GHG emissions due to dependence on hydropower
  3. Lack of existing investments to fund mitigation scenarios
  4. Low GDP per capita prevents GHG emissions from industry to grow, over-reliant on agriculture
FUTURE ACTION
  • Investment in mitigation strategies and projects from international community
  • Collect data and research to create GHG Inventories in order to better-track
    changes in emissions over time
  • Ensure that carbon-neutral economic development is prioritized in
    future growth of the economy
  • Ensure accountability and action of government to enforce stated policies.
  • Create long-term Carbon Budget that effectively factors in economic growth and development, while achieving net negative emissions.
LES-NDC4

Madagascar

mozambique

NAMIBIA

NIGERIA

Madagascar

Mad1-153x300
PCA FULFILLMENT

Madagascar will not fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. No implementation of policy and action at any level: Executive,
    Ministerial, or Parliamentary
  2. Significant LACK of data conducted to create accurate GHG inventory
  3. Significant lack of funding for policies
  4. Series of political and civil unrests prevent any further planning or strategizing
  5. Commitments to the Paris Agreement only symbolic. Fundamental absence of ratification

SOLUTIONS
  • Constituents must pressure governments into ratifying effective policy and strategy aimed at achieving net negative emissions.
  • Research and production of accurate GHG Inventories;
    • Training of academia and research institutions to improve recording and collection of GHG data.
    • Development of harmonised formats of data collection.
    • Capacity building and training among sector lead institutions.
  • Creation of awareness of the reality of climate change and greenhouse gases that will drive the urgency to form policies and strategy.

mozambique

Moz1-631x1030
PCA FULFILLMENT

Mozambique will not fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. No implementation of policy and action at any level: Executive,
    Ministerial, or Parliamentary level
  2. Significant lack of data conducted to create accurate GHG inventory
  3. Significant lack of funding for policies
  4. Series of political and civil unrests prevent any further planning or strategizing
  5. Commitments to the Paris Agreement only symbolic. Fundamental absence of ratification

SOLUTIONS
  • Constituents must pressure governments into ratifying effective policy and strategy aimed at achieving net negative emissions
  • Research and production of accurate GHG Inventories;
    • Training of academia and research institutions to improve recording and collection of GHG data
    • Development of harmonised formats of data collection
    • Capacity building and training among sector lead institutions
  • Creation of awareness of the reality of climate change and greenhouse gases that will drive the urgency to form policies and strategy

NAMIBIA

Nam__02
PCA FULFILLMENT

Namibia should fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. Adoption of policy and action at Executive, Interministerial, and Ministerial levels
  2. Endorsements of external funding in envronmental investments
  3. Recording of GHG inventory and review of emissions strategy updated yearly (last recorded 2016)
  4. 65% of energy demand from South African Power Pool — High level of Emissions

FUTURE ACTION
  • Investment in and implementation of renewable energy;
    • Namibia is heavily dependent on South African Power Pool, an unsustainable source of energy;
    • Strategizing of long-term policy that achieves net-negative emissions in energy sector.
      • i. Must include phasing out of foreign energy sources;
    • Tackle expanding role of electricity and expand potential renewable energy.
  • Ensure accountability and action of government to enforce policy.
  • Create long-term Carbon Budget that effectively factors in economic growth and development, while achieving net negative emissions.

NIGERIA

Nig1-1-1030x825
PCA FULFILLMENT

Nigeria should fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. Implementation of an unconditional targets of 20% mitigation and conditional mitigation of 40%
  2. Gas flaring to end by 2030 and investment in reforestation and energy efficiency programs
  3. Lack of articulate strategy on how to achieve targets. ONLY broad targets set 
  4. Issues of rapid urbanisation and excessive oil pollution must be tackled

SOLUTIONS
  • Constituents must pressure governments into ratifying effective policy and strategy aimed at achieving net negative emissions.
  • Research and production of accurate GHG Inventories;
    • Training of academia and research institutions to improve recording and collection of GHG data.
    • Development of harmonised formats of data collection.
    • Capacity building and training among sector lead institutions.
  • Creation of awareness of the reality of climate change and greenhouse gases that will drive the urgency to form policies and strategy.
PCA FULFILLMENT

Madagascar will not fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. No implementation of policy and action at any level: Executive,
    Ministerial, or Parliamentary
  2. Significant LACK of data conducted to create accurate GHG inventory
  3. Significant lack of funding for policies
  4. Series of political and civil unrests prevent any further planning or strategizing
  5. Commitments to the Paris Agreement only symbolic. Fundamental absence of ratification

SOLUTIONS
  • Constituents must pressure governments into ratifying effective policy and strategy aimed at achieving net negative emissions.
  • Research and production of accurate GHG Inventories;
    • Training of academia and research institutions to improve recording and collection of GHG data.
    • Development of harmonised formats of data collection.
    • Capacity building and training among sector lead institutions.
  • Creation of awareness of the reality of climate change and greenhouse gases that will drive the urgency to form policies and strategy.
PCA FULFILLMENT

Mozambique will not fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. No implementation of policy and action at any level: Executive,
    Ministerial, or Parliamentary level
  2. Significant lack of data conducted to create accurate GHG inventory
  3. Significant lack of funding for policies
  4. Series of political and civil unrests prevent any further planning or strategizing
  5. Commitments to the Paris Agreement only symbolic. Fundamental absence of ratification

SOLUTIONS
  • Constituents must pressure governments into ratifying effective policy and strategy aimed at achieving net negative emissions
  • Research and production of accurate GHG Inventories;
    • Training of academia and research institutions to improve recording and collection of GHG data
    • Development of harmonised formats of data collection
    • Capacity building and training among sector lead institutions
  • Creation of awareness of the reality of climate change and greenhouse gases that will drive the urgency to form policies and strategy
PCA FULFILLMENT

Namibia should fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. Adoption of policy and action at Executive, Interministerial, and Ministerial levels
  2. Endorsements of external funding in envronmental investments
  3. Recording of GHG inventory and review of emissions strategy updated yearly (last recorded 2016)
  4. 65% of energy demand from South African Power Pool — High level of Emissions

FUTURE ACTION
  • Investment in and implementation of renewable energy;
    • Namibia is heavily dependent on South African Power Pool, an unsustainable source of energy;
    • Strategizing of long-term policy that achieves net-negative emissions in energy sector.
      • i. Must include phasing out of foreign energy sources;
    • Tackle expanding role of electricity and expand potential renewable energy.
  • Ensure accountability and action of government to enforce policy.
  • Create long-term Carbon Budget that effectively factors in economic growth and development, while achieving net negative emissions.
PCA FULFILLMENT

Nigeria should fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. Implementation of an unconditional targets of 20% mitigation and conditional mitigation of 40%
  2. Gas flaring to end by 2030 and investment in reforestation and energy efficiency programs
  3. Lack of articulate strategy on how to achieve targets. ONLY broad targets set 
  4. Issues of rapid urbanisation and excessive oil pollution must be tackled

SOLUTIONS
  • Constituents must pressure governments into ratifying effective policy and strategy aimed at achieving net negative emissions.
  • Research and production of accurate GHG Inventories;
    • Training of academia and research institutions to improve recording and collection of GHG data.
    • Development of harmonised formats of data collection.
    • Capacity building and training among sector lead institutions.
  • Creation of awareness of the reality of climate change and greenhouse gases that will drive the urgency to form policies and strategy.

SOUTH AFRICA

SWAZILAND

TANZANIA

UGANDA

SOUTH AFRICA

SA-3
PCA FULFILLMENT

South Africa will not fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. Projected Emissions Strategy does not include the ongoing growth  in emissions since 2010, resulting in much higher emissions
  2. More than 50% of all emissions come from coalfired electricity. This will continue to grow
  3. If most other countries were to follow South Africa's approach,  global warming would exceed 3-4°C
  4. Warming in the Southern African interior occurs at up to twice the global rate

SOLUTIONS
  • Policies should be created that achieve net negative emissions:
    • Carbon emissions should start declining by 2019; not 2025
    • Create long term Carbon Budgets
  • Investment in and implementation of renewable energy
    • South Africa is already over-invested in fossil fuels;
    • Changing electricity supply lo renewable energy and replacing use of fossil fuels whenever possible:
      • MUST include phasing out internal combustion engines in transport
    • Tackle expanding role of electricity and expand potential renewable energy

SWAZILAND

SWZ-NDC1
PCA FULFILLMENT

Unknown

REASONING
  1. Lack of data and public information prevents accurate conclusions.
  2. More that 90% of all emissions come from energy and AFOLU  Sectors. These will continue to grow
  3. AFOLU and waste sector emissions continue to rise exponentially
  4. Last recording of emissions data available is from 1994, more than 24 years ago
  5. Roughly 80% of energy imported from South African Power Pool — High level of Emissions

SOLUTIONS
  • Investment in and implementation of renewable energy:
    • Swaziland is heavily dependent on South African Power Pool an unsustainable source of energy. It must phase out of foreign energy sources
    • Tackle expanding role of electricity and demand potential renewable energy
  • Constituents must pressure governments into ratifying effective policy and strategy aimed at achieving net negative emissions
  • Research and production of accurate GHG Inventories
    • Training of academia and research institutions to improve recording and collection of GHG data
    • Development of harmonised formats of data collection
    • Capacity building and training among sector lead institutions

TANZANIA

Tan1-1030x1002
PCA FULFILLMENT

Tanzania will not fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. Intended reduction of only 10-20% of emissions by 2030.
  2. Significant lack of data conducted to create accurate GHG inventory.  Last analysis conducted in 1990
  3. Lack of tangible strategising and mitigation by government. Only external strategising available
  4. Commitments to the Paris Agreement only symbolic. Fundamental absence of ratification

SOLUTIONS
  • Constituents must pressure governments into ratifying effective policy and strategy aimed at achieving net negative emissions
  • Research and production of accurate GHG Inventories
    • Training of academia and research institutions to improve recording and collection of GHG data
    • Development of harmonised formats of data collection
    • Capacity building and training among sector lead institutions
  • Creation of awareness of the reality of climate change and greenhouse gases that will drive the urgency to form policies and strategy

UGANDA

UG1
PCA FULFILLMENT

Uganda should fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. Adoption of policy and action at Executive, Interministerial, and Ministerial levels (as of June 2018)
  2. Endorsements of external funding in environmental investments, particularly from Sweden
  3. Low existing GHG emissions due to low economic development
  4. GHG emissions grew by more than 50% in last 20 years
  5. Frequent changes in political regime can affect climate policies adopted

SOLUTIONS
  • Investment In and implementation of renewable energy
    • Tackle expanding role of electricity and expand potential renewable energy
  • Investment in technologies that reduce emissions in the Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use (AFOLU) sector
    • Create long-term Carbon Budget that effectively factors in economic growth and development, while achieving net negative emissions
  • Ensure accountability  and action of government to enforce policy
    • Proof of external funding allocated lo appropriate channels / programs
PCA FULFILLMENT

South Africa will not fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. Projected Emissions Strategy does not include the ongoing growth  in emissions since 2010, resulting in much higher emissions
  2. More than 50% of all emissions come from coalfired electricity. This will continue to grow
  3. If most other countries were to follow South Africa's approach,  global warming would exceed 3-4°C
  4. Warming in the Southern African interior occurs at up to twice the global rate

SOLUTIONS
  • Policies should be created that achieve net negative emissions:
    • Carbon emissions should start declining by 2019; not 2025
    • Create long term Carbon Budgets
  • Investment in and implementation of renewable energy
    • South Africa is already over-invested in fossil fuels;
    • Changing electricity supply lo renewable energy and replacing use of fossil fuels whenever possible:
      • MUST include phasing out internal combustion engines in transport
    • Tackle expanding role of electricity and expand potential renewable energy
PCA FULFILLMENT

Unknown

REASONING
  1. Lack of data and public information prevents accurate conclusions.
  2. More that 90% of all emissions come from energy and AFOLU  Sectors. These will continue to grow
  3. AFOLU and waste sector emissions continue to rise exponentially
  4. Last recording of emissions data available is from 1994, more than 24 years ago
  5. Roughly 80% of energy imported from South African Power Pool — High level of Emissions

SOLUTIONS
  • Investment in and implementation of renewable energy:
    • Swaziland is heavily dependent on South African Power Pool an unsustainable source of energy. It must phase out of foreign energy sources
    • Tackle expanding role of electricity and demand potential renewable energy
  • Constituents must pressure governments into ratifying effective policy and strategy aimed at achieving net negative emissions
  • Research and production of accurate GHG Inventories
    • Training of academia and research institutions to improve recording and collection of GHG data
    • Development of harmonised formats of data collection
    • Capacity building and training among sector lead institutions
PCA FULFILLMENT

Tanzania will not fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. Intended reduction of only 10-20% of emissions by 2030.
  2. Significant lack of data conducted to create accurate GHG inventory.  Last analysis conducted in 1990
  3. Lack of tangible strategising and mitigation by government. Only external strategising available
  4. Commitments to the Paris Agreement only symbolic. Fundamental absence of ratification

SOLUTIONS
  • Constituents must pressure governments into ratifying effective policy and strategy aimed at achieving net negative emissions
  • Research and production of accurate GHG Inventories
    • Training of academia and research institutions to improve recording and collection of GHG data
    • Development of harmonised formats of data collection
    • Capacity building and training among sector lead institutions
  • Creation of awareness of the reality of climate change and greenhouse gases that will drive the urgency to form policies and strategy
PCA FULFILLMENT

Uganda should fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. Adoption of policy and action at Executive, Interministerial, and Ministerial levels (as of June 2018)
  2. Endorsements of external funding in environmental investments, particularly from Sweden
  3. Low existing GHG emissions due to low economic development
  4. GHG emissions grew by more than 50% in last 20 years
  5. Frequent changes in political regime can affect climate policies adopted

SOLUTIONS
  • Investment In and implementation of renewable energy
    • Tackle expanding role of electricity and expand potential renewable energy
  • Investment in technologies that reduce emissions in the Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use (AFOLU) sector
    • Create long-term Carbon Budget that effectively factors in economic growth and development, while achieving net negative emissions
  • Ensure accountability  and action of government to enforce policy
    • Proof of external funding allocated lo appropriate channels / programs

ZAMBIA

ZIMBABWE

ZAMBIA

Zam
PCA FULFILLMENT

Zambia will not fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. No adoption of policy and action at any level: Executive, Ministerial or Parliamentary
  2. Significant lack of data conducted to create accurate GHG inventory.
  3. Inadequate funding to enforce any viable policy  or strategy planned
    Lack of tangible strategizing and mitigation since 1999
  4. Commitments to the Parts Agreement only symbolic. Fundamental absence of ratification

SOLUTIONS
  • Constituents must pressure governments into ratifying effective policy and strategy aimed at achieving net negative emissions
  • Research and production of accurate GHG Inventories
    • Training of academia and research institutions to improve recording and collection of GHG data
    • Development of harmonised formats of data collection
    • Capacity building and training among sector lead institutions
  • Creation of awareness of the reality of climate change and greenhouse gases that will drive the urgency to form policies and strategy

ZIMBABWE

zim-1030x941
PCA FULFILLMENT

Zimbabwe should fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. Adoption of policy and action at Executive, Interministerial and
    Ministerial
  2. Endorsements of external funding in environmental investments
  3. Recording of GHG inventory and review of emissions strategy updated yearly (last recorded 2016)
  4. Lack of Evidence snowing tangible action and steps towards enforcements of policies and strategy

SOLUTIONS
  • Investment in and implementation of renewable energy:
    • Tackle expanding role of electricity and expand potential renewable energy
  • Investment in technologies than reduce emissions in the Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use (AFOLU) sector
    • Create long-term Carbon Budget that effectively factors in economic growth and development while achieving net negative emissions
  • Ensure accountability and action of government to enforce policy
    • Proof of external funding allocated to appropriate channels / programs
PCA FULFILLMENT

Zambia will not fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. No adoption of policy and action at any level: Executive, Ministerial or Parliamentary
  2. Significant lack of data conducted to create accurate GHG inventory.
  3. Inadequate funding to enforce any viable policy  or strategy planned
    Lack of tangible strategizing and mitigation since 1999
  4. Commitments to the Parts Agreement only symbolic. Fundamental absence of ratification

SOLUTIONS
  • Constituents must pressure governments into ratifying effective policy and strategy aimed at achieving net negative emissions
  • Research and production of accurate GHG Inventories
    • Training of academia and research institutions to improve recording and collection of GHG data
    • Development of harmonised formats of data collection
    • Capacity building and training among sector lead institutions
  • Creation of awareness of the reality of climate change and greenhouse gases that will drive the urgency to form policies and strategy
PCA FULFILLMENT

Zimbabwe should fulfill PCA

REASONING
  1. Adoption of policy and action at Executive, Interministerial and
    Ministerial
  2. Endorsements of external funding in environmental investments
  3. Recording of GHG inventory and review of emissions strategy updated yearly (last recorded 2016)
  4. Lack of Evidence snowing tangible action and steps towards enforcements of policies and strategy

SOLUTIONS
  • Investment in and implementation of renewable energy:
    • Tackle expanding role of electricity and expand potential renewable energy
  • Investment in technologies than reduce emissions in the Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use (AFOLU) sector
    • Create long-term Carbon Budget that effectively factors in economic growth and development while achieving net negative emissions
  • Ensure accountability and action of government to enforce policy
    • Proof of external funding allocated to appropriate channels / programs

Term descriptions

TERMDESCRIPTION
PARIS CLIMATE AGREEMENT (PCA)An agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that aims to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C
NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS (NDCS)The contributions that each individual country should make in order to achieve the worldwide goal of the PCA. These contributions are determined by all countries individually by their respective governments. In general, these contributions include limiting coal emissions, reducing emissions by improving technology in the agriculture sector, and investing in renewable energy.
CARBON BUDGETA tolerable quantity of greenhouse gas emissions that can be emitted in total over a specified time. The budget needs to be in line with what is scientifically required to keep global warming and subsequent climate change “tolerable”.
FOSSIL FUELSFuels that include coal, petroleum, natural gas, and heavy oils that are found in the remains of living organisms (anything with carbon). Burning fossil fuels result in the excessive production of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that cause global warming. More than 80% of the world’s energy is provided by fossil fuels.
AFOLU SECTORAgriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use sector, which is responsible for just under a quarter of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG emissions in this sector are mainly from deforestation and agricultural emissions from livestock, soil, and nutrient management. A unique sector considered since the migration potential is derived from both an enhancement of removals of GHG as well as reduction of emissions through management of land and livestock.
GHG INVENTORIESA type of emission inventory of natural and anthropogenic GHG emissions that are used to develop strategies and policies for emissions reductions and to track the progress of those policies. GHG inventories typically use values that combine emissions of various greenhouse gases into a single weighted value of emissions in order to quantify the inventory.

Solutions to climate change do not only come from research centers and laboratories but also through innovation by the people most affected.

—Kofi Annan