Action 24 Glossary

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[av_heading tag=’h2′ padding=’10’ heading=’Action 24 Glossary’ color=” style=’blockquote modern-quote modern-centered’ custom_font=” size=” subheading_active=” subheading_size=’15’ custom_class=” admin_preview_bg=”][/av_heading]

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  • Accountability – the relationship where an actor (an individual or a body) has an obligation to explain and justify their conduct to another. It involves two stages: answerability, i.e. the obligation to provide information; and enforcement, where the actor responsible for oversight can sanction and/or remedy the contravening action.
  • Act – a bill which has passed through the various legislative steps required for it to become law. A Bill becomes an Act (law) when it is signed by the competent head of the Executive, i.e. the President of the Republic (national sphere of government) or the Premier of a province (provincial level).
  • Adaptation – planned or spontaneous, collective or individual actions that humans take to adjust to climate induced hazards and changing natural circumstances.
  • Anthropogenic – man-made, caused by human activity.
  • Appropriation Act – a legislative act that appropriates the moneys that may then be withdrawn from the National Revenue Fund, as per Section 213(2) of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. It authorises expenditure of public funds for a specified purpose by giving departments the authority to spend the money allocated in their votes once the Bill is enacted.
  • Atmosphere – the gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth. It consists of multiple gases, clouds and aerosols (suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets).

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  • Bill – the draft version of a law or Act.
  • Budget Review and Recommendation Reports (BRRR) – reports that the National Assembly committees must compile and submit annually on the financial performance of departments that are accountable to them. A BRRR is an assessment of a department’s performance and service delivery as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of its programmes.A BRRR must be informed by a Committee’s interrogation of, amongst others, national departments’ medium term estimates of national expenditure, strategic priorities and measurable objectives outlined in National Treasury published reports, annual reports, the reports of the Committee on Public Accounts relating to the department, as well as observations made during oversight visits.

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  • Carbon budget – an allowance for the emission of greenhouse gases, against which direct emissions arising from the operations of a company during a defined time period will be accounted. The budget is determined based on the quantity of emissions estimated to keep global warming and thus climate change “tolerable” [i]. The term “carbon” is shorthand for “carbon dioxide”, and by extension, for all greenhouse gases currently reported in the South African national inventory, i.e. carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride and the hydrofluorocarbons (hfc) and perflurocarbons (pfc) families of gases.[i] WWF South Africa, 2014. Understanding Carbon Budgets, briefing document.
  • Carbon dioxide – a naturally occurring gas, also a by-product of burning fossil fuels from fossil carbon deposits, such as oil, gas and coal, of burning biomass and of land use changes and of industrial processes (e.g., cement production). It is the principal anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) that affects the Earth’s radiative balance. It is the reference gas against which other greenhouse gases are measured and therefore has a Global Warming Potential of 1 [i]. It is denoted by CO2.[i] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2014. Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), Working Group III: Mitigation of Climate Change, Cambridge University Press.
  • Carbon sink – natural or artificial reservoirs that accumulate and store carbon for an indefinite period.
  • Carbon tax – a tax that penalises companies and individuals that emit more carbon than what they are authorised to. The aim is to create a financial incentive to shift from carbon intensive to low carbon behaviours, production and consumption patterns.
  • Citizen participation – the People’s rule is manifested through participation in various democratic processes which provide individuals an opportunity to influence public decisions. Electing representatives is one form of participation, but not the only one. If they are to rule, the People must also monitor and influence the behaviour of their representatives and officials while in office, to ensure that they actually work for the public good. This implies that the citizens have access to information, that they have knowledge that enables them to part take in decision making, and that they can peacefully organise themselves to promote their interests if need be.
  • Climate – the average weather in a certain place over many years, at least 30 years, described in terms of variables such as temperature, precipitation and wind.
  • Climate change – a change in the state of the climate that can be identified by changes in the average weather patterns, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. Changes in climate conditions may be due to natural variability or a result of human activity [i].
  • Committee – a group of Members of a legislature appointed by the House to undertake specific tasks. A Committee is headed by a Chairperson (elected representative) and supported by a Secretary or Coordinator (staff).
  • Conference of Parties (COP) – the yearly meeting of the 197 nations that adhered to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These nations are called “parties” to the UNFCCC.
  • Constituency – a body of citizens from a specific geographic area, represented by an elected official. Because of the proportional representation electoral system, Members of Parliament and of Provincial Legislatures are not directly elected by constituencies, rather constituencies are allocated to them by their respective political parties. Only ward councillors (local government) are elected per area.
  • Constitution – the basic, fundamental law of a state which sets out how it is organised and the powers and authorities of the various organs of government and of the people. The South African Constitutions also includes the Bill of Rights, which lists the fundamental rights of the citizens.
  • Constitutional democracy – a system of government based on popular sovereignty in which the structures, powers, and limits of government are set forth in the Constitution.[i] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2014. Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), Working Group III: Mitigation of Climate Change, Cambridge University Press.

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  • Decoupling – delinking economic growth from resource use and environmental impacts. It means reducing the amount of resources such as water or fossil fuels used to produce economic growth while decreasing environmental deterioration. This is achieved by both making resources more productive and increasing eco-efficiency.
  • Deforestation – the permanent destruction of indigenous forests and woodlands.
  • Democracy – a system of government in which power is vested in the people (the whole population or all the eligible members of a state), who rule either directly or through freely elected representatives.
  • Direct democracy – in a direct democracy, people have a direct say in every single decision that affects them. In practice, it is very difficult to implement, especially in large entities such as countries, but also because each region may be facing different issues. The majority of today’s democracies are representative – or “indirect”. Two small districts of Switzerland still practice direct democracy, where the inhabitants gather yearly in a public assembly to vote on local questions. 
  • Division of Revenue – the allocation of funds between the three spheres of government, as required by the Constitution of South Africa, 1996.

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  • E-waste – discarded electronic components and appliances such as mobile phones, computers, and televisions.
  • Ecosystem – refers to an area that is relatively uniform in terms of its environmental conditions, and the interdependent community of flora, fauna, fungi and microorganisms living in it.
  • Environmental (or ecological) footprint – the effect that a person, company, activity, etc. has on the environment, for example the amount of natural resources that they use and the amount of harmful gases that they produce.
  • Environmental governance – the processes of decision-making involved in the control and management of the environment and natural resources.
  • Environmental justice – the principle that all people and communities have the right to live in an environment that is clean, safe, healthy and free of conditions that can harm their well-being. This leads to the right to equal environmental protection under the law, and the obligation to protect minority and underprivileged populations from inequitable environmental burdens.
  • Estimates of National Expenditure – a document that sets out the detailed spending plans of each government department for the coming year. The document serves as background to the Appropriation Act that makes these spending plans legally binding.
  • Executive – the administrative branch of government that runs the daily business of government by implementing the laws and policies.
  • Expenditure – spending or expenses by government.

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  • Fossil fuels – carbon-based fuels from fossil hydrocarbon deposits, including coal, oil, natural gas and peat [i].[i] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2014. Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), Working Group III: Mitigation of Climate Change, Cambridge University Press.

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  • Global warming – average warming of the Earth’s surface and atmosphere occurring at a faster pace and bigger scale than ever before in the history of the planet, that results from increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases that enhance the natural greenhouse effect.
  • Global Warming Potential – a measure of the radiative effect of each unit of gas over a specified period of time, expressed relative to the radiative effect of carbon dioxide (CO2).
  • Good governance – where a government aims to be efficient, transparent and responsive, as prerequisites to be accountable to its citizens.
  • Government – a government is the system or group of people governing an organised community, generally a state. It normally consists of a legislature, an executive and a judiciary.
  • Government Gazette – the gazette of record of South Africa. It is the periodical publication authorised to publish public or legal notices.
  • Greenhouse effect – the natural process by which some of the Sun’s energy that reaches the Earth’s atmosphere is absorbed by greenhouse gases, which causes to warm the Earth’s surface. As the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere increases, more solar radiations are trapped which causes global warming.
  • Greenhouse gases – the gases that constitute the atmosphere and that absorb and emit radiations, thus causing the greenhouse effect. Water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and ozone (O3) are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere. These gases are both natural and anthropogenic. There are also number of entirely human-made greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as the halocarbons and other chlorine- and bromine-containing substances, as well as sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) [i].[i] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2014. Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), Working Group III: Mitigation of Climate Change, Cambridge University Press.

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  • House – another word to designate a legislative assembly.
  • Hydrological zones – areas presenting distinct hydrological properties.

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  • Judiciary – the independent system of courts that interprets and applies the law in a given country.
  • Just transition – the idea that while swift action is required to tackle global warming, the changes this will bring about shouldn’t be at the expense of some sections of society – for instance workers and communities depending on the fossil fuel industry. Rather, the policies and actions required to deal with climate change offer opportunities to enable social upliftment and decent livelihoods to all [i] if managed properly. The transition to low-carbon development and societies is a formidable opportunity to create greater socio-economic justice in the process.[i] COSATU, A just transition to a low carbon and climate resilient economy, COSATU Climate Change Project,  2011.

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  • Law – the system of rules which a particular community or country recognises as regulating the actions of its members, and which it may enforce by imposing penalties.
  • Legislature – the system of institutions, elected by the people, that are empowered to make, change or repeal the laws, and to which the Executive is accountable.
  • Low-carbon – refers to the need for us to transform our economy and the way we live so as to limit our emissions of carbon dioxide. See also mitigation of climate change.

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  • Medium Term Budget Policy Statement (MTBPS) – a document presented by the Minister of Finance which provides an indication of how the government intends to allocate resources in the upcoming budget and for the next three years as well as information about how the government expects the economy to perform over that period. It details projected revenue and expenditure for that period, the division of revenue among the spheres of government (national, provincial, local), the proposed substantial adjustments to conditional grants and the review of actual spending by each national department for the first half of the ongoing financial year. The MTBPS is published ahead of the budget to improve transparency and to ensure that debates concerning the budget are informed.
  • Medium-Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) – the three-year spending plans of national and provincial governments, published at the time of the Budget.
  • Mitigation – human actions aimed at reducing global warming, by either reducing the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases [i].
  • Money bills – bills that allocate public money for a particular purpose (spending) or that impose taxes, levies or duties.
  • Multi-party political system – several political parties are able to contest elections, ensuring voters a choice, and that diverse and competing views will be represented in the legislature. Democracy entails the right to differ in opinions, and the acceptance of these differences.[i] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2014. Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), Working Group III: Mitigation of Climate Change, Cambridge University Press.

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  • National Treasury – the department within South Africa’s national government that is responsible for the country’s finances and for management and oversight of the policies that guide the way the country’s finances are managed.
  • Nationally Determined Contribution – outline of the targets and actions that each country party to the Paris Climate Agreement voluntarily commits to, as a self-determined contribution to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Each NDC reflects the country’s ambition for reducing emissions, taking into account its domestic circumstances and capabilities.

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  • Oversight – the proactive interaction initiated by a legislature with the executive and administrative organs of state, that encourages compliance with their constitutional obligation to ensure delivery on agreed-to objectives for the achievement of government priorities [i].[i] South African Legislative Sector Support, Oversight and Accountability, Induction Handbook for Members of Parliament and Provincial Legislatures. 2014

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    • Parliamentary Budget Office – office in Parliament tasked with providing ‘independent, objective and professional advice and analysis to Parliament on matters related to the budget and other money bills’. Its Director is appointed and removed by the finance and appropriations committees of both Houses [i].
    • Participatory democracy – a system of government where the public is actively involved in the decision-making processes of the government. The South African Constitution entrenches public participation as a crucial element of democracy, and makes it a key requirement of government decision-making and oversight processes for both the legislative and the executive powers. The Constitution gives each citizen equal opportunities to get involved in deciding upon matters that concern them or the society they live in, beyond elections, and to hold authorities to account.
    • Petition – a formal, written request to a legislature for intervention in a matter. It can be either a complaint or a request for assistance with a specific issue.
    • Plenary session – session that may be attended by all Members of a legislature.
    • Proportional representation – an electoral system in which parties gain seats in proportion to the number of votes cast for them.
    • Provincial Treasury – the department within each South African provincial government that is responsible for the province’s finances and for management and oversight of the policies that guide the way the province’s finances are managed.
    • Public (the) – it refers to the general population or the ordinary citizens of the country. It encompasses individual persons in their own capacity as citizens, as well as entities that represent various sections of the population – either political parties or interest groups of various forms. The public is not a uniform entity, especially for a country like South Africa that comprises of a very diverse society. This means that people may have different needs and views depending on their ethnicity, language, gender, physical condition, socio-economic status, place of residence, sexual orientation, religious beliefs or political beliefs.
    • Public hearing – a public meeting of a legislative committee(s) on a particular subject at which any citizen may speak and offer his or her views on the subject.
    • Public participation– the process by which an entity (be it public or private) consults with interested or affected parties, including individuals, communities, organisations and institutions of all sorts, before making a decision. Public participation is two-way communication and collaborative problem solving with the goal of achieving better and more acceptable decisions.
    • [i] Institute for Security Studies, 2015. Budget Guide for Members of Parliament.

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  • Renewable energy – energy from a source that is not depleted when used, including sources that are replenished by natural processes at a rate that equals or exceeds its rate of use. Most common forms of renewable energy are solar, wind, hydro (water) and geothermal power and biomass.
  • Representative democracy – a system of government where citizens of a country vote for representatives to handle legislation and rule the country on their behalf.
  • Resilience – refers to strengthening the capacity of a system, community or society to prepare for, withstand and respond to a sudden change of circumstances, so as to sustain itself. See also adaptation to climate change.
  • Revenue – all the money ‘coming in’, such as the income from taxes (for example: VAT and personal income tax) and from non-tax sources (such as mineral royalties and the sale of capital assets).
  • Rule of Law – the principle that all people and institutions are subject to and accountable to law that is fairly applied and enforced; the principle of government by law.

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  • Secretary of the Legislature – the senior administrative officer of a legislature responsible for ensuring that its business runs smoothly.
  • Separation of powers – the power of the state is divided between three arms, namely the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. Each has separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that the powers of one arm don’t conflict with the powers of the others.
  • Speaker of the Legislature – the presiding officer, or the chair, of a legislature. He or she is essentially the political Head of the institution.
  • Spheres of government – The Constitution sets that the South African Government is structured in three spheres (or tiers or levels): national, provincial and local government. These three spheres of government are “distinctive, inter-related and interdependent”. While they are autonomous from one another, they all operate according to the Constitution and laws and policies made by national Parliament, which is the ultimate representative of the people of South Africa.
  • Submission – the presentation of views or opinions on a matter or piece of legislation under consideration by a parliamentary committee.
  • Sustainable development – development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs [i]. It refers to achieving economic and social development in ways that do not exhaust the planet’s natural resources and does not cause excessive and irreversible harm to the environment. The underlying principle is that we must strive to – and can! – achieve the rights and well-being of all people on the planet without damaging the environment nor depleting the natural resources which we rely on. In essence, this means striking a stable relationship between human activities and the natural world, which does not diminish the prospects for future generations to enjoy a quality of life at least as good as our own. Participatory democracy, undominated by vested interests, is a prerequisite for achieving sustainable development [ii].[i] World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission), 1987.[ii] Mintzer I. M., 1992. Confronting Climate Change: Risks, Implications and Responses, Cambridge University Press.

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  • Tiers of government – levels of government recognised in the Constitution: national, provincial and local. Each level has legislative and executive authority, based on a system of interdependent, interrelated and co-operative government.

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  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) – an international framework for climate action adopted in 1992. To make things confusing, the name is actually most commonly used to refer not to the treaty but to the UN department (or “secretariat”) in charge of advancing the organization’s climate change goals.

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  • Vulnerability to climate change – the propensity or predisposition to be adversely affected by climate change. Vulnerability encompasses a variety of concepts and elements including susceptibility to be harmed, sensitivity to changing climatic conditions and lack of capacity to cope and adapt [i].[i] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2014. Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Cambridge University Press.

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  • Weather – Whatever is happening outdoors in a given place at a given time, measured through wind, temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, cloudiness, and precipitation (rainfall).
  • Whip – official of a political party whose task is to ensure party discipline in a legislature. A Whip ensures that the Members of the legislature attend and vote in the House, and undertake their parliamentary duties as the elected representatives of the people. The Chief Whip is usually the Whip of the party with the most members in the House.

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